/ Housing – what is it? Housing and utilities. Quality and cost of housing and communal services
Housing and communal services – what is it? Housing and utilities. Quality and cost of housing and communal services
Housing and communal services systemis one of the key economicindustries in the country. It covers a large production and technical complex. For his services and products, demand is always high. We now consider in detail the featuresHousing and communal services. Explanationan abbreviation will also be listed in the article.
Housing and communal services systemincludes public, residential buildings,transport, operational and other facilities. All of them form a complex socio-economic complex. The effectiveness of its activities depends on the state of infrastructure facilities and directly the environment of citizens.Housing – what is? This is primarily independenteconomic sphere. Its key task is the satisfaction of the needs of citizens and organizations in services through which normal working and living conditions are ensured.
Housing and communal services (housing and communal services)- the sphere in which a lot of topical issues are solved. Many of them become aggravated with the onset of cold weather. In what areas worksHousing and communal services? ExplanationThis abbreviation speaks for itself. The key areas of this area are providing the main resources of the population and organization – electricity, water, heat. In some regions the situation is rather complicated. The most acute problems of support are in the Koryaksky AO, Magadan Region, Kamchatka, Primorye. In some regions only 60% of fuel is imported. Aging of funds is another urgent problem in theHousing and communal services. WhatThe physical wear and tear of utilities is known in every region. All these problems require an immediate solution.
Despite the fact that the capital region is considered the safest in the country, and there are actual problems. Key issues related to financingHousing and communal services. Whatlack of money for the industry? This is primarily a shortage of operational equipment, overalls for employees, low salaries. For a small salary, no one wants to work. Accordingly, the industry employs mostly unskilled employees. As officials note, the permanent deficit at the moment is about 700 million rubles. Means that citizens transfer in the form of rent, you can cover onlycost of housing and communal services. However, this amount does not include costsfor the maintenance and maintenance of engineering and communications networks. That is why the industry works only in emergency mode. There is simply no money for preventive measures.
Whatindebtedness for the sector under consideration? It is the source of the chain of non-payments, which are present in virtually all industries. The key reasons for the difficult situation with debt are:
Multi-year underestimation of MO levels of paymentspopulation in combination with budget insolvency. It was expressed in the inconsistency of the established standards with respect to the costs of repair and maintenance of housing stock and engineering infrastructure and regional values in the formation of the budget.
Sequestration and non-reimbursement of funds allocated in the late 90s. on
Ministry of Construction and Housing and Communal Services of the Russian Federation
Chronically increasing non-payments for actual consumption during the price adjustment period.
Very slow rate of installation of devices for water metering and heat, constrained by the executive structures of the MoD and the organizations that they monopoly provide services.
Imperfection of the tariff scheme, a systematic change in prices for fuel and energy resources.
High level of receivables for consumed services by organizations receiving funding from budgets.
The lack of contractual and economic interaction with the servicing institutions in the MO on the basis of municipal orders in accordance with Articles 72 and 71 of the BC.
The bodies of territorial power are far from alwaysare able to fulfill their obligations. This led to widespread dissemination of administrative enforcement of contractors and performers in violation of current legislation. Significantly decreased control of production and provision of quality services to citizens, justification of the tariffs. Insufficient financing explains the lack of interest in the formation of HOAs. Failure to fulfill budgetary obligations, the lack of transparent and effective procedures for setting and adjusting tariffs cause the unattractiveness of the sphere for private investors. This indicates a systemic crisis in the industry as a whole, and separately in the regions. The decision of the arisen problems is possible by application of the program-target method.
The main work on the development of a problem-solving program falls onMinistry of Construction and Housing and Communal ServicesThe Russian Federation. First of all, it is necessary to improve the composition and structure of financial relations within the industry with the requirements of a market economy. It should be noted that part of the measures began in 1997. Thus, in the late 1990s, the process of transition from free or almost free provision of housing and communal services and provision of housing to paid citizens, in accordance with quality, was launched. The main objectives of the events are:
Providing the population with living conditions that meet the quality standards.
Reducing the costs of serving organizations and, accordingly, tariffs. At the same time, the quality of the services provided should remain high.
The transition of the entire industry to self-sufficiency.
Having designated the directions of reforming the housing and communal services, the government has worked out the following ways to achieve the set goals:
Improvement of management, control and operation structures.
Transition to contractual relations, developmentcompetition, the provision of an opportunity for the end user to influence the quality and volume of services, the introduction of a competitive selection of service organizations.
Improvement of calculation schemes, establishment of higher rates for excess housing, differentiation of payment in accordance with the location of the facility and the quality of housing.
Decrease with subsequent termination of appropriations from the budget, elimination of cross-subsidization.
Improvement of the system of social protection of citizens. It involves streamlining existing benefits, strengthening the individual focus of the funds allocated.
Increase of tariffs to economically justified indicators, determined through competitive selection of service organizations.
Social protection of the population
It consists in preventing regional bodies and structures of territorial self-government from:
Containment of improving the subsidy program for low-income families.
Unjustified deterioration in the quality of services in comparison with those provided for under the contract of employment.
The introduction of unreasonably high tariffs.
Housing is considered one of the most costly economic sectors. Here wasteful consumption of heat and electricity, water, other resources.Enterprise of housing and communal servicesoften unable to cover costsestablished tariffs and norms. At the same time, the price policy in the sector under consideration acts as a regulatory mechanism between producers, users and the municipal budget. The latter provides financing for the most cost-intensive areas of the industry. As a basis for price policy, a set of measures aimed at encouraging producers to reduce losses, and consumers in turn, to rational use of resources, should act. Payment for services today is carried out in accordance with the tariffs. The standards are calculated at cost and established profitability. The general rules for determining these indicators are subject to the corporate interest of the manufacturer. Tariffs are set by the localadministration. Housing and utilitieswhile not providing adequate controlactual consumption of resources and can not bill for excessive use. The consumer, in turn, can not refuse payments and allocate volumes that really need to be included in the tariff and cost. The existing payment scheme, therefore, does not allow to take into account the costs actually borne by the producer, the amount of actual consumption and loss of the product during its transportation and receipt.
Effective analysis of rationing procedures andPricing should be based on the ratio of the established level of costs of producers and the amount of consumption of a particular resource. The existing problems are caused by the imperfection of the current regulatory framework. However, gaps are present at the federal, regional and local levels. The tariff regulation scheme is designed to ensure the implementation of investment and production programs approved for the upcoming period. Its functions include:
Encouraging utilities to reduce costs while improving the quality of services.
Creating conditions for attracting investment.
Ensuring the formation of the necessary amount of financial resources.
Accounting for the creation of competitive relations in some sub-sectors of utilities.
Formation of mechanisms to reduce the politicization of pricing processes.
Methods of planning, calculation and accounting
Financialhousing departmentmust seek a compromise between technicaltask, needs for money and solvency of the population. The method of planning, calculating and accounting of tariffs is the basis for determining the tariffs. It is designed to ensure the unity of the classification and composition of costs, costing at enterprises engaged in various activities in the housing sector. The regulation approved by government decree No. 522 of August 5, 1992, amendments to it, as well as other legal acts, acts as a regulatory framework. The method is intended for use by organizations of various types of activity: housing fund operation, water disposal and water supply, electricity, heat supply, sanitary cleaning of settlements, bathing, hotel, laundry services, etc.
It acts as one of the keystages of determining economically reasonable prices. Expenditure planning is necessary both for natural monopolists and for those organizations that have the opportunity to conclude service contracts through a competition. In the latter case, the cost is included in the tariff, which is the starting point for the event. Planned expenses for each item are set in accordance with:
The planning process should take into account the following groups of factors:
Reducing the cost: the use of anti-cost mechanism, measures for resource conservation and so on.
Increasing cost: price indices that determine the degree of inflation, the introduction of technological operations that improve the quality of service.
Planned cost per unit of serviceestablished by dividing the total estimated costs by the expected volume of services in kind. Loss / profit from sales is defined as the difference between revenue in current prices without VAT and costs in accordance with the legislation (standards).
To improve the organization of the sector inLCD provides that the management of an apartment building is designed to provide safe and favorable conditions for citizens, proper maintenance of common property, the solution of issues related to its use, as well as quality service organizationsHousing and communal services. By the addressFinding the owners must choose one of the ways to manage:
The relevant decision is made at a general meeting.
In the 90s in Russia, the population covered the order4% of operating costs utilities. The rest of the expenses were compensated by budget funds. In the process of transition to a market economy, it became obvious that such a financing system was inefficient. In this regard, there is an urgent need for sector reform. By Presidential Decree No. 425, the Concept of Transformation was approved. In accordance with it, the following tasks were set:
Ensuring the living conditions of citizens who meet the standards.
Reducing the costs of service organizations. This, in turn, should have helped reduce tariffs while maintaining the quality of services.
Mitigation for citizens of the consequences of transforming payment calculation schemes when the sector transitions to break-even operation.
As practice has shown the process of reforming housing and communal serviceson a territorial level, it is rather slow. On the ground, there is a gradual increase in tariffs. By 2007, population payments covered about 80% of the costs in the industry. After the transition to full payment of utility bills, budget commitments are provided only for a portion of the costs related to the provision of benefits and subsidies. Meanwhile, at present the state of the communal infrastructure remains unsatisfactory. The industry has identified the following problems:
A high percentage of depreciation of fixed assets (50-70%).
The financial condition of housing and utilities organizations today does not meet the requirements of the economy.
The presence of high accounts payable and receivable.
The development of housing and communal services isslow and difficult. The difficulties are caused primarily by the neglect of the industry, the presence of contradictions in the financial relations of the participants in the process. Experts consider it reasonable to gradually increase tariffs for the population so that over time they reach the level set for legal entities. However, this requires a clear mechanism for protecting low-income families. At the same time, experts note that the initial deadlines for the transition to 100% payment by citizens of operational costs are not justified. Due to high inflation, the need to strengthen social protection of the population, it is proposed to reduce the maximum allowable share of citizens own costs for housing and public utilities services from 22 to 18%. At all levels of government, it is necessary to be more actively involved in solving the problems of the industry, without shifting them to the population, investors and the market.